One of the most characteristic features of contemporary debates in the social sciences is the growth of interest in non-class forms of social division and identity, accompanied by an increasing focus on ethnic and gender inequalities. Davis and Moore are concerned more with differential positions and less with the mechanism for recruitment. Weber examined how many members of the aristocracy lacked economic wealth, yet had strong political power. But they agree that they have given too much credit to the functions of stratification and have neglected the dysfunctions. They claim that the functioning of a society depends upon the adequate performance of different positions within it. 1848. 3. Talcott Parsons upholds that stratification is inevitable in human interactions. It makes it essential for the society to provide motivation to accept the unequal rewards system. Publish your original essays now. 2. Consequently, Marx's theory is relevant to societies of the mid-nineteenth century, whereas the theory of Weber is relevant to the modern societies. The work of the German sociologist Max Weber represents one of the most important developments in stratification theory since Karl Marx.Weber sees class in economic sense and says that classes develop in market economies in which individuals compete for … Working half a century later than Marx, Weber derived many of his key concepts on social stratification by examining the social structure of Germany. Max Weber Theory of Social Stratification What is Social stratification? 8.5 . place in the analysis of stratification and of social mobility. Without the incentive of higher pay and better benefits, why would someone be willing to rush into burning buildings? While explaining social stratification, the structural-functionalists argue that there are certain essential tasks that are to be performed in each society. Conflict theorists observe that stratification promotes inequality, such as between rich business owners and poor workers. Retrieved January 9, 2012 ( It means privileged and disproportionate access to the scarce and desired rewards have to be offered by each society. Secondly, the theories of Marx and Weber offer convincing explanations of social stratification in the time periods that they describe. A major concern of modern-day theory would be the impacts of stratification within society. Before publishing your Essay on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Social stratification is a term used in the social sciences to describe the relative social position of persons in a given social group, category, geographical region or other social unit. Further Tumin argues that differential rewards are not necessary for inducing individuals to qualify for functionally important positions. But social stratification does much more: It results in some members of society benefiting greatly and others suffering. They regard it a viable and reasonable theory. The Davis-Moore thesis, though open for debate, was an early attempt to explain why stratification exists. (2) It involves a solution to a problem faced by each society. (ii) Every society displays some dissensions and conflicts. Marxian social stratification theory revolves around two antagonistic economic classes. Further Tumin levels the charge that the functionalist theory applies to a competitive society and not to an ascriptive society. the exploited and subordinate class.). In the words of Gisbert, “ Social stratification is the division of society in permanent groups or categories linked with each other by the relationship of superiority and subordination.” Tumin again argues that besides money and prestige, there are other rewards that can be used to motivate people. evaluate various theories of stratification within class based societies, explain the difficulties inherent in relating class to inequality of outcomes, and ultimately give examples of these inequalities, specifically in the areas of both health and educational outcomes. This is mainly because functionalism was most popular in the 1950s and 1960s when many families were still based on the male breadwinner and the female housewife and mother. (vi) Different rewards, depending upon the position, are attached with prestige and esteem which divide the society into different strata. Davis, Kingsley, and Wilbert E. Moore. Society is a relatively persistent and stable structure of elements. They approach the problem of social inequality from the functionalist perspective and generally follow Talcott Parsons. Functionalist Perspective on Indian Studies 3.8. How do the major theories of social stratification differ? (b) Stratification interferes rather than facilitates the selection of talented people. Weber’s ideas of stratification have very heavy influence in the way in which social class is determined today. It derives from the Latin strātum (plural '; parallel, horizontal layers) referring to a given society's categorization of its people into rankings of socioeconomic tiers based on factors like wealth, income, social status, occupation and power. What is the function of social stratification? Browse our library and start downloading now! The cashier position does not require the same skill and training level as firefighting. Discuss theories of social stratification. How does social stratification influence the daily interactions of individuals? – Explained! 3. Today, while working conditions have improved, conflict theorists believe that the strained working relationship between employers and employees still exists. So engineers would not be trained at all unless their work is considered more important. The thesis also does not explain inequalities in the education system or inequalities due to race or gender. 5. (3) It is an inevitable feature of each society. (v) These scarce and desired rewards consist of rights and perquisites attached to the positions. According to Davis and Moore, a firefighter’s job is more important than, for instance, a grocery store cashier’s. Social Stratification refers to divisions among people based on differences in status and things like wealth, power, or prestige. Marxian view of society as a society divided into two classes of Haves and Have-nots is an over-simplified and unreal view of the society. Marxian Theory is wrong in so far as it believes that in a capitalist society power is always in the hands of the rich capitalists, the propertied class. - Read online for free. All of these are kinds of competing interest groups in society. According to functionalism, different aspects of society exist because they serve a needed purpose. The thesis states that social stratification is necessary to promote excellence, productivity, and efficiency, thus giving people something to strive for. Davis-Moore Theory of Social Stratification 3.5.1. Welcome to! Social stratification is the arrangement of the members of a society into different categories of class, caste or a hierarchy based on factors like income, wealth, status, occupation, or even ethnicity. Marx saw workers experience deep alienation, isolation and misery resulting from powerless status levels (Marx 1848). (Photo courtesy of Brian Stansberry/Wikimedia Commons). theories of Social Stratification. No theorist stressed the signifi­cance of class for society and for social change more strongly than Karl Marx. For example, the Minnesota Timberwolves hand out the lowest annual payroll, while the Los Angeles Lakers reportedly pay the highest. Some critics like Tumin criticise the functionalist theory of Davis and Moore on following grounds: 1. How do systems of class, based on factors such as prestige, power, income, and wealth, influence your own daily routines, as well as your beliefs and attitudes? Symbolic interactionists examine stratification from a micro-level perspective. “They seek to explain in functional terms the universal necessity which calls forth stratification in any social system”. The employees don’t need a college degree. Weber developed a multidimensional approach to social stratification that reflects the interplay among wealth, prestige and power. Functionalists like Talcott Parsons, Kingsley Davis and W.E. In the concerted view of Marx and his followers in all stratified societies, there are two major social groups, a ruling class (the Haves) and a subject class (Have-nots) the power of the ruling class derives its power from its ownership and control of the forces of production. Retrieved January 9, 2012 ( The distinction is important, but Tumin has confused the two. Stratification is a particular form of social inequality. Main Propositions of the Functionalist Theory of Davis and Moore: (i) Some positions in each society are functionally more important than others and require special skills for their performance.