K.c.s.e Papers 2015 2019 KCSE Results Online Form One Selection List 2021 Kusoma Biology Notes Pdf Living organisms are classified into five kingdoms; • Some are unicellular while others are multicellular, • Most are saprophytic eg yeasts, moulds and mushrooms, • A few are parasitic eg Puccinia graminae, • These are very small unicellular organisms, • do not have any bound membrane organelles, • They are mainly bacteria, eg Vibrio cholerae, • Their nucleus and organelles are surrounded by membranes (eukaryotic), • They include algae, slime moulds - fungi-like and protozoa, • They contain chlorophyll and are all autotrophic, • They include; Bryophyta (mossplant), Pteridophyta (ferns) and Spermatophyta (seed bearing plants), • These are all multicellular and heterotrophic, • Examples are annelida (earthworms), mollusca (snails),athropoda, chordata, • Example of Arthropods are ticks, butterflies, • Members of Chordata are fish, frogs and humans, • Spore capsule and rhizoids in moss plants, • Stem, leaves, roots, flowers, fruits and seeds in plants. 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KCSE Biology Question and Answer Which Date is 2019 KCSE Results Coming Out? 2020 Top 100 County KCSE Schools How to Get My KCSE Results 2019 Kcse Biology Paper 1 2017 KCSE 2020 Ranking When Is KCSE 2020 Released KCSE Exams 2020 Matokeo Ya Form Four 2020/19 Funny Biology Questions and Answers 2022 KCSE Result Slip Strathmore School KCSE Results 2019 Biology Book Two Notes • Their mode of feeding is also said to be holozoic to distinguish it from other special types of heterotrophic nutrition namely: • Saprophytism/saprotrophysim- occurs in most fungi and some forms of bacteria, • Saprophytes feed on dead organic matter and cause its decomposition or decay, • Parasitism is a mode of feeding whereby one organism called the parasite feeds on or lives in another organism called the host and harms it, • Animals have developed various structures to capture and ingest food, • The type of structures present depend on the method of feeding and the type of food, • Carnivorous animals feed on whole animals or portions of their flesh, • Herbiverous animals feed on plant material, • Omnivorous animals feed on both plants and animal materials, • The jaws and teeth of mammals are modified according to the type of food eaten, • Mammals have different kinds of teeth, • Each type of teeth has a particular role to play in the feeding process, • This condition is described as heterodont, • The teeth of reptiles and amphibians are all similar in shape and carry out the same function, • The incisors are found at the front of the jaw, • They are sharp-edged and are used for biting, • The canines are located at the sides of the jaw, • They are pointed and are used for tearing and piercing, • The premolars are next to the canines and the molars are at the back of the jaw, • Both premolars and molars are used for crushing and grinding, • Teeth are replaced only once in a lifetime, • The first set is the milk or deciduous teeth, • These are replaced by the second set or the permanent teeth, • A dental formula shows the type and number of teeth in each half of the jaw, • The number of teeth in half of the upper jaw is represented above a line and those on the lower jaw below the line, • The first letter of each type of teeth is used in the formula i.e, i = incisors, c = canines, pm = premolars and m = molars, • The total number is obtained by multiplying by two (for the two halves of each jaw), • In general, incisors are for cutting, canines for tearing while premolars and molars are for grinding, • However, specific modifications are observed in different mammals as an adaptation to the type of food they eat, • Incisors are long and flat with a sharp chisel¬like edge for cutting, • The enamel coating is thicker in front than at the back so that as the tooth wears out, a sharp edge is maintained, • If absent, the space left is called the diastema, • The diastema allows the tongue to hold food and push it to the grinding teeth at the back of the mouth, • The ridges on the upper teeth fit into grooves on the lower ones, • This gives a sideways grinding surface, • The teeth of herbivores have open roots i.e, • This ensures a continued adequate supply of food and oxygen to the tooth, • In some herbivores, such as rabbits and elephants, the incisors continue to grow throughout life, • Incisors are reduced in size and pointed, • They are well suited for grasping food and holding prey, • They are used for piercing and tearing flesh as well as for attack and defence, Premolars and molars: In general, they are long and longitudinally ridged to increase surface area for crushing, Carnassial Teeth: These are the last premolars on the upper jaw and the first molars on the lower one, • The teeth of carnivores have closed roots i.e, , only a very small opening of the pulp cavity to allow food and oxygen to keep teeth alive, • Once broken, no re-growth can take place, • Incisors have a wide surface for cutting, • Canines are bluntly pointed for tearing, • Premolars and molars have cusps for crushing and grinding, • The premolars have two blunt cusps while the molars have three to four, Crown: The portion above the gum; it is covered by the enamel, Root: The portion below the gum; it is covered by the cement, Neck: Is the region at the same level with the gum, • It forms the junction between the crown and the root, • Premolars have one or two roots while molars have two to three roots each, • Internally, the bulk of the tooth is made up of dentine which consists of living cells and extends to the root, • It is composed of calcium salts, collagen and water, • It is harder than bone but wears out with use, • This is why it is covered by enamel which is the hardest substance in a mammal's body, Pulp Cavity: Contains blood vessels which provide nutrients to the dentine and remove waste products, • It also contains nerve endings which detect heat, cold and pain, Cement: Fixes the tooth firmly to the jaw bone, • Dental carries are the holes or cavities that are formed as acid corrodes enamel and eventually the dentine, • The gum becomes inflamed, and starts bleeding, • Progression of the disease leads to infection of the fibres in the periodontal membranes and the tooth becomes loose, • The diseases are caused by poor cleaning of the teeth, • The accumulation of food particles leading to formation of plaque, lack of adequate vitamin A and C in the diet, • Nutrition - by taking adequate balanced diet rich in vitamins A and C, • Antibiotics are used to kill bacteria, • Antiseptic is prescribed to use in cleaning the mouth daily to prevent further proliferation of bacteria, • The plaque is removed-drilled away - a procedure known as scaling. 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