Douglas Murray McGregor (1906–1964) Social psychologist McGregor’s Theory-X and Theory-Y of MIT expounded two contrasting theories on human motivation and management in the 1960s: The X Theory and the Y Theory. He was a strong supporter of Theories X and Y, and he put Theory Y (that people want to work, achieve and take responsibility) into practice in a Californian electronics factory. Als letzte Inhalts Theorie behandeln wir in diesem Kapitel die X-Y-Theorie des MIT-Professors Douglas McGregor. Douglas Murray McGregor was a management professor at the MIT Sloan School of Management and president of Antioch College from 1948 to 1954. von Arbeitnehmern). However, beyond this commonality, they’re quite dissimilar. Looking to level up your leadership skills? This management style, in fact, hinders the satisfaction of higher-level needs. Consultants with knowledge and experience in the Douglas McGregor motivational theory can guide you in maximizing the benefit of his principles in your own company's unique environment. McGregor recognized that some people may not have reached the level of maturity assumed by Theory Y and therefore may need tighter controls that can be relaxed as the employee develops. Leadership and management training based on Douglas McGregor X Y theory can help you engage your employees' creativity and initiative in support of shared goals. It appeared at a time when the behavioral sciences were playing an increasing role in how managers thought about their work. Most management theorists today agree that Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y somewhat exaggerate the contrasts in management's view of workers, but the real value of McGregor's theories lies in the way they reveal just how much leadership depends on perception and expectation. The capacity for creativity spreads throughout organizations. In 1895, it was here that his grandfather, Thomas McGregor started his business and given its name as, McGregor Institute. Self-fulfillment is the real reward workers seek. Wer ist der Mann, der Trumps Interessen in Deutschland vertreten soll? Douglas Murray McGregor (* 1906 in Detroit; † 1. How Companies Can Change Their Culture to Attract... Do you want more millennials to join and remain loyal to your... From COVID-19 to Hurricane Season: Disaster... Natural disasters – whether a hurricane, tornado or outbreak like... 3 Leadership Podcasts You Should Be Listening To. X-Y-Theorie Definition. Most people have little aptitude for creativity in solving organizational problems. Mitarbeiter eines Unternehmens in zwei Menschenbilder, die sich gegenseitig ausschließen. Definition - und Erklärung des Management-Begriffs "Theorie X und Y nach McGregor": In den 50er Jahren untersuchte Douglas McGregor, Professor am Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), die Zusammenhänge unterschiedlicher Führungsstile und ihre jeweils zugrunde liegenden Menschenbilder. Under these conditions, people will seek responsibility. Menschenbilder in der Führung voneinander ab: Theorie X und Theorie Y. Folgende Tabelle stellt beide vor und gibt eine Definition der entsprechenden Menschenbilder und inneren Haltung. Learn more. The Best Business Loan and Financing Options of 2021. Once those needs have been satisfied, the motivation is gone. Diese Theorie unterteilt Menschen bzw. Most people are self-centered. While in high school, McGregor worked as night clerk at the McGregor Institute, a family affair originally established by his grandfather, but managed by his father and his uncle to provide temporary accommodation for around 100 transient workers at a time. Er gilt als einer der Gründerväter des zeitgenössischen Managementgedankens. They can only be made to get results at work by the application of coercive methods and by direction. McGregor's work was rooted in motivation theory alongside the works of Abraham Maslow, who created the hierarchy of needs. DOUGLAS MCGREGOR THEORY X McGregor died in 1964, aged 58, but not before making a substantial contribution to the field of manage-ment. Douglas McGregor's theory of management, often referred to as McGregor's XY theory, remains a cutting-edge management model though more than 50 years old. Er hatte eine scheinbar einfache Existenz, obwohl eine sehr tiefe Berufung zum Dienst ihn dazu brachte, wichtige Beiträge in der Geschäftswelt zu leisten. Douglas McGregor wrote about Theory X and Theory Y In the late 1950s and early 1960s. Answer the question(s) below to see how well you understand the topics covered in this section. Drawing on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, McGregor argues that a need, once satisfied, no longer motivates. Even today in 2013, only a few companies are truly adopting Theory Y assumptions, but it is a start and hopefully a start towards a more human workplace. Work is inherently distasteful to most people, and they will attempt to avoid work whenever possible. Build It Big: 10 Killer Tips to Solve Common Startup Problems, Room for Improvement: How to Build a Better Performance Review System, How to Improve Relations Between Your Managers and Employees, The Best Business Liability Insurance Providers of 2021. Do you care about the goals of the organization that you work for, or do you focus more on getting a regular paycheck to bring home? Numerous online tests are available which can help you see exactly where your organization stacks up against McGregor management theory. 1. This short quiz does not count toward your grade in the class, and you can retake it an unlimited number of times. Two-Factor Theory: The Definitive Guide (Step-by-Step) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: 5 Levels, Features, Difference ; Theory X. It would appear that the optimal approach to human resource management would lie somewhere between these extremes. As such, it is these higher-level needs through which employees can best be motivated. Er hatte eine scheinbar einfache Existenz, obwohl ihn eine sehr tiefe Berufung zum Dienst dazu veranlasste, wichtige Beiträge in der Geschäftswelt zu leisten. Theory X and … Entweder eine Führungskraft geht von Theorie X aus – oder sie geht von Theorie Y aus. Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Biography of Douglas McGregor Douglas McGregor was born on 1906 in Detroit, America. Related Content: Popular Management Theories Decoded [INFOGRAPHIC]. McGregor untersuchte die Mitarbeiter-Dynamik in Unternehmen. Douglas Murray McGregor (* 1906 in Detroit; † 1. Known as an influential figure in management theory, organizational communication, and organizational studies, Douglas McGregor was a professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he was a vocal advocate of the human relations approach. Douglas Murray McGregor (1906 – 1 October 1964) was a management professor at the MIT Sloan School of Management and president of Antioch College from 1948 to 1954. Introduction: In 1960, Douglas McGregor an American psychologist formulated a theory that has changed the path of management thinking and practice. McGregor's X-Y theory is a salutary and simple reminder of the natural rules for managing people, which under the pressure of day-to-day business are all too easily forgotten. In his 1960 management book, The Human Side of Enterprise, Douglas McGregor made his mark on the history of organizational management and motivational psychology when he proposed the two theories by which managers perceive employee motivation. McGregor came from a social psychology background and brought his training in this area to the field of management. Die psychologische Führungsforschung hat mittlerweile zahlreiche … In 1960, Douglas McGregor formulated Theory X and Theory Y suggesting two aspects of human behaviour at work, or in other words, two different views of individuals (employees): one of which is negative, called as Theory X and the other is positive, so called as Theory Y. McGregor came from a social psychology background and brought his training in this area to the field of management. McGregor's theory's were created in the 1960's and created a paradigmatic shift in organizational thinking and a catalyst in human relations management. McGregor makes the point that a command-and-control environment is not effective because it relies on lower needs for motivation, but in modern society those needs are mostly satisfied and thus no longer motivate. Journal of Managerial Issues, tions that moderate the efficacy of theory y manage- 20, 255–271. Douglas McGregor, best known for his comparison of the X and Y theories of management, is often considered the father of the Y management theory. Most people can handle responsibility because creativity and ingenuity are common in the population. Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human work motivation and management. Nach der X-Y-Theorie (in der 1960er Jahren von Douglas McGregor entwickelt) haben Vorgesetzte bzw. Organizational climate is one such Kopelman, R. E., Prottas, D. J., & Falk, D. W. (2010). He referred to these opposing motivational methods as Theory X and Theory Y management. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor’s in his book “the human side of Enterprise” published in 1960, explained two different kinds of theories or assumptions about human behavior. (Theory X and Theory Y), introduced in the book and are known for management and human motivation. Man sollte die X-Y-Theorie aber nach heutigem Stand besser als Kontinuum betrachten. Ex-Militär Douglas Mcgregor soll neuer US-Botschafter in Berlin werden. McGregor’s sets forth two alternative views of human nature first view are called Theory-X and the second view is called Theory-Y. Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Y: Toward a Construct-Valid Measure. Der Amerikaner Douglas McGregor ist Sozialpsychologe mit dem Spezialgebiet Mitarbeiterverhalten in Organisationen. Manager zwei konträre Bilder von Menschen (bzw. Zum einen die Per­son X, die von Natur aus faul und unwillig ist. Aus diesem Grund zerlegt man die X-Y-Theorie meistens in eine X-Theorie und eine Y-Theorie. Jahrhunderts lebte. It was a period characterized by the work of Maslow, Likert, Argyris, and Herzberg, among others. What are the qualities of a good manager? I regret that now. Douglas McGregor offers us two theories for the price of one: Theory X & Theory Y. The hard approach results in hostility, purposely low output, and extreme union demands. These views are known as Theory X and Theory Y. Douglas McGregor wrote about Theory X and Theory Y In the late 1950s and early 1960s. Douglas McGregor’s theory incorporates both internal and external motivation. McGregor promoted Theory Y as the basis of good management practice, pioneering the argument that workers are not merely cogs in the company machinery, as Theory X-Type organizations seemed to believe. Nach der negativen Theorie X ist der Mensch im Grundsatz faul, arbeitsunwillig, passiv, ohne Ehrgeiz und Einsatzwillen und nicht bereit, Verantwortung zu übernehmen. Diese Theorie unterteilt Menschen bzw. McGregor played piano there at its regular services. Authors: Dave Gannon. According to The Economist (2008) “he was not necessarily the first to come across the ideas associated with him. Er gilt als einer der Gründerväter des zeitgenössischen Managementgedankens. In his 1960 book, The Human Side of Enterprise, McGregor proposed two theories by which managers perceive and address employee motivation. People will use work to satisfy their lower needs and seek to satisfy their higher needs during their leisure time. Theory X holds a negative (traditional) view of the workers while theory Y holds a much refined and […] Known as an influential figure in management theory, organizational communication, and organizational studies, Douglas McGregor was a professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he was a vocal advocate of the human relations approach. Er wurde berühmt durch seine Formulierung der „Theorie X“ (autoritäres Management) und der „Theorie Y“ (partizipatives Management), die er erstmals 1960 in seinem Buch The Human Side of Enterprise vorstellte. As a result, they must be closely controlled and often coerced to achieve organizational objectives. He was a strong supporter of Theories X and Y, and he put Theory Y (that people want to work, achieve and take responsibility) into practice in a Californian electronics factory. Douglas McGregor: Biografie, Theorie X und Y. Douglas Murray McGregor (1906–1964) war ein amerikanischer Wirtschaftsingenieur und Psychologe, der in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Douglas McGregor’s theory x and y: Toward a Boundary conditions. Expand Internationally by Leveraging Local PEO... A professional employer organization can make an international... Popular Management Theories Decoded [INFOGRAPHIC]. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor’s in his book “the human side of Enterprise” published in 1960, explained two different kinds of theories or assumptions about human behavior. The hard approach to motivation relies on coercion, implicit threats, micromanagement, and tight controls— essentially an environment of command and control. Theory X advanced the view that human beings have an innate dislike for work. Many small businesses need funding to get started.... What is the difference between a boss and a true leader? (Douglas Mcgregor: Theory X and Theory Y, 1998) The Y management theory implies that employees as responsible individuals, who are motivated by a sense of accomplishment. Many websites provide valuable information about McGregor theory. Douglas McGregor was born in Detroit, Michigan. The higher-level needs of esteem and self-actualization are continuing needs in that they are never completely satisfied. In 1960, Douglas McGregor formulated Theory X and Theory Y suggesting two aspects of human behaviour at work, or in other words, two different views of individuals (employees): one of which is negative, called as Theory X and the other is positive, so called as Theory Y. The soft approach, however, is to be permissive and seek harmony in the hopes that, in return, employees will cooperate when asked. Use this quiz to check your understanding and decide whether to (1) study the previous section further or (2) move on to the next section. Douglas McGregor offers us two theories for the price of one: Theory X & Theory Y. Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y are use for identify type of manager by divide leader or manager into two groups (Theory X and Y), according to how leader’s manage their employees and how they believe what driven their employees by nature. In his 1960 management book, The Human Side of Enterprise, Douglas McGregor made his mark on the history of organizational management and motivational psychology when he proposed the two theories by which managers perceive employee motivation. Der Amerikaner Douglas McGregor ist Sozialpsychologe mit dem Spezialgebiet Mitarbeiterverhalten in Organisationen. He has contributed much to the development of the management and motivational theory, and is best known for his Theory X and Theory Y as presented in … Jahrhunderts lebte. Jahrhunderts lebte. Each assumes that the manager’s role is to organize resources, including people, to best benefit the company. Douglas McGregor (1906 –1964) was a famous management professor in the field of personal development and motivational theory. Die vom amerikanis­chen MIT Pro­fes­sor Dou­glas McGre­gor entwick­elte X‑Y-The­o­rie beschreibt die Annahme von Führungsper­sön­lichkeit­en, dass es inner­halb ihrer Mitar­beit­er nur zwei — sehr gegen­sät­zliche — Per­sön­lichkeit­en gibt. DOUGLAS MCGREGOR THEORY X McGregor died in 1964, aged 58, but not before making a substantial contribution to the field of manage-ment. If Theory Y holds true, an organization can apply these principles of scientific management to improve employee motivation: If properly implemented, such an environment would result in a high level of workforce motivation as employees work to satisfy their higher level personal needs through their jobs. As an owner, how can I maintain a good relationship with my employees? Not only did Douglas McCregor contributed the basic concepts of Theory X/Y but he also already saw 60 years ago the implication in how that could change the workplace. Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y. Under Theory X, management approaches to motivation range from a hard approach to a soft approach. Er hatte eine scheinbar einfache Existenz, obwohl ihn eine sehr tiefe Berufung zum Dienst dazu veranlasste, wichtige Beiträge in der Geschäftswelt zu leisten. Most people are not ambitious, have little desire for responsibility, and prefer to be directed. They were created by Douglas McGregor while he was working at the MIT Sloan School of Management in the 1950s, and developed further in the 1960s. His ideas suggest that there are two fundamental approaches to managing people: Many managers tend toward Theory X and generally get poor results. The business provides assistance to Great Lakes sailors and other transient labour. However, McGregor asserts that neither approach is appropriate since the foundations of Theory X are incorrect. However, neither of these extremes is optimal. He is best known for his development of the Theory X and Theory Y, a leadership theory on two different leadership styles. Theory X and Theory Y were first explained by McGregor in his book, \"The Human Side of Enterprise,\" and they refer to two styles of management – authoritarian (Theory X) and participative (Theory Y).If you believe that your team members dislike their work and have little motivation, then, according to McGregor, you'll likely use an authoritarian style of management. Nicht nur die Menschenbilder sind entscheidend für den Erfolg von Führungskräften. McGregor describes Theory X as the dominant view: people ar seem as lazy, not very capable, unwilling to work (unless you make them work), opportunistic and prepared to deceive (providing they think they won't be caught). McGregor was a student of Abraham Maslow. In his 1960 book, The Human Side of Enterprise, McGregor proposed two theories by which managers perceive and address employee motivation. McGregor’s work made a significant impact on managerial thought. Douglas McGregor’s theory incorporates both internal and external motivation. I regret that now. According to The Economist (2008) “he was not necessarily the first to come across the ideas associated with him. Oktober 1964 in Massachusetts) war ein Professor für Management am Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). McGregor (McGregor, 1960) hat mit seiner X-Y-Theorie das Interesse vieler auf die Menschenbilder von Führungskräften gelenkt. He referred to these opposing motivational methods as Theory X and Theory Y management. Er hatte eine scheinbar einfache Existenz, obwohl eine sehr tiefe Berufung zum Dienst ihn dazu brachte, wichtige Beiträge in der Geschäftswelt zu leisten. Douglas McGregor Biographie, Theorie X und Y. Douglas Murray McGregor (1906-1964) war ein amerikanischer Wirtschaftsingenieur und Psychologe, der in der ersten Hälfte des 20. 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