If you have sufficient seed then it is possible to sow it directly into an outdoor seedbed, preferably in the autumn. fraxinus latifolia is a deciduous Tree growing to 20 m (65ft 7in). campus: several on the east side of 35th St. just south of Jackson Ave. âMarshallâ (syn. Durability Oregon ash is a nondurable species that is susceptible to wood decay. Northwest Science 61:203-212. Abundant seed producer. Log grades have not been developed. Items are priced on a curve, you can buy any 'bulk quantity' up to what we have in stock, some examples are: * Fraxinus latifolia is found on the west side of the Cascade Range from southwestern British Columbia south through western Washington, western Oregon, and northwestern California; and in central California in the Sierra Nevada. Oregon Ash. It is dioecious. Honkala, coords. Various other insects feed on twigs and foliage and may be pests in ornamental plantings. The foliage is food for butterfly larvae and may be consumed by passing browsers. Size, Longevity, and Form Mature Oregon ash attain heights of 60 to 80 ft and DBH of 16 to 30 in. Find light green or brown clusters of seeds. OWSTON, P.W. Good growth potential is indicated by the following: Climate Oregon ash thrives in a mild, humid climate characterized by relatively cool, humid summers and wet, mild winters. Geographic Range Oregon ash is native from northern Washington (lat 48Â° N) to southern California (lat 35Â° N) on the west side of the Cascade Range and the Sierra Nevada. Sixty percent of Oregon Ash seed destruction is due to an insect called the emerald ash borer, along with an assortment of other pests and insects that feed on its foliage and twigs. Characteristics The wood of Oregon ash is moderately hard and heavy, with distinct growth rings. Ø Western regions of Washington, Oregon, and California (5) Climate, elevation. Shrinkage values for Oregon ash dried from green to ovendry are 4.1 percent radially and 8.1 percent tangentially. long. In forest stands, Oregon ash develop short, narrow crowns with small branches on long, straight boles. Untreated posts of this wood average only 6 years of service before failing. Plant Details Habitat: Riparian Forests Bottomland Forests Shrub Swamp Wet Prairie ... Oregon Ash quantity. Oregon State Univ. Seedlings commonly establish in the understory of existing riparian forests after floods that deposit silt. Nursery and Seed Sources Mendocino: Anderson Valley Nursery: PROFILE : Boonville 95415: wholesale, retail San Francisco: Bay Natives: PROFILE : San Francisco 94114: mostly retail; mailorder Young seedlings will grow in fairly dense shade. âMarshall's Seedlessâ) - is by far the most commonly planted Green Ash cultivar. Common shrub associates include snowberry, hawthorn, serviceberry, mockorange, crabapple, and himalaya berry. Ecological Role Oregon ash is a long-term dominant in riparian areas along slow streams and in other poorly drained areas subject to seasonal flooding. Melioides Species: F. latifolia Binomial name Fraxinus latifolia Benth. Burns and B.H. Uncategorized oregon ash tree. The only ash native to the Pacific Northwest, the Oregon Ash is commonly used for conservation and restoration projects in wet/riparian areas. Fruit torn open exposing seed. Whole fruit. Appendix 1, Table 3 provides information on clear strength values for Oregon ash, as well as comparative values of other species. 1990. The ash tree seeds that sink to the bottom can now be used to grow ash plants. Oregon ash also grows on upland forest soils adjacent to more typical ash habitat. Drying defects are most often associated with wetwood, or are caused by uncontrolled air-drying, which results in surface- and end-checking. Tool wear is moderate. The bottomlands where Oregon ash is most common provide a relatively cool, moist environment, even in hot interior valleys. Oregon ash prefers damp, loose soils, and grows from sea level to 900 meters (3,000ft) in elevation, up to 1,700. MI-Recommended Alternatives to Ash Trees (FRLA) MI-Southeast Michigan RC (FRLA) MI-www.EmeraldAshBorer.info (FRLA) OH-Ash Alert (OSU) (FRLA) USDA APHIS-Emerald Ash Borer (FRLA) USDA FS Forest Health Protection (FRLA) USDA Forest Service-Silvics of North America (FRLA) USDA NRCS National Ash Tree Seed Collection Initiative (FRLA) Wet or moist soils high in organic matter provide the best conditions for germination and establishment of Oregon ash. In central Southern California, it intergrades with Fraxinus velutina (velvet ash) of southern California east into Arizona. Stumps should be cut low to the ground in order to produce well-formed sprouts of good quality. Only one is native to this state, Oregon ash , although others are planted ornamentally, especially for their bright red fall foliage. Today the hard wood is used for tool handles, furniture, sports equipment, and barrels. Oregon ash is an abundant annual seeder in open stands or as isolated trees (22), but heavy crops occur at 3- to 5-year intervals in forest stands (2). Sapstains and sticker stains can also degrade the wood. Long-lived (250 years), Oregon Ash is a splendid shade tree or specimen tree for a large landscape. Thereafter, height growth is negligible and top height is relatively short (60 to 80 ft), although good diameter growth may continue. There are few estimates of volume growth or yield for Oregon ash. Measurements in a pure stand of 45-year-old Oregon ash showed an average height of 70 ft and basal area of 140 to 160 ft2 per acre, which yield approximate volumes of 3200 to 3800 ft3 per acre. The capability of a site for growing Oregon ash should be evaluated by examining growth and form of older trees. Oregon ash is widely planted and does very well in ornamental applications, which indicates its potential for good performance in managed plantations. Oregon ash can be weedy specifically in wet prairie restoration in Oregon, the wind dispersed seeds establish naturally and can dominate these sites, turning a wetland prairie into an ash forest. About Oregon Ash (Fraxinus latifolia) 15 Nurseries Carry This Plant Add to My Plant List; Fraxinus latifolia (Oregon ash) is a member of the Oleaceae (Olive) family native to western North America on the west side of the Cascade Range from southwestern British Columbia south through western Washington and western Oregon to central California. Annual growth was about 70 ft3 per acre in both lightly thinned and unthinned stands. and larger. This information was originally published in Hardwoods of the Pacific Northwest, S.S. Niemiec, G.R. Oregon ash is a medium-sized to large tree that can grow up to 25 meters tall. It will also grow on sandy, rocky, and gravelly soils in riparian areas or areas with seasonal flooding. Lumber grade recovery has not been studied. Young seedlings will grow in fairly dense shade. The seeds are eaten by birds and squirrels. USDA Forest Service, Washington D.C. Agriculture Handbook 654. Ash seedlings establish in wet grasslands or fields, particularly after disturbance such as plowing (in the absence of fire or grazing) (OSU, OWIC, 2020). Oregon ash provide food and habitat for beaver and nutria, which also significantly damage the trees. It is hardy to zone (UK) 6. latifolia: with broad leaves; Oregon State Univ. Research Contribution 8. They hang down in large groupings from the tree. The Ash tree is valuable for birds (especially Woodpeckers) due to the insects, seeds, and shelter (including for â¦ Weight Oregon ash weighs about 48 lb/ft3 when green and 38 lb/ft3 at 12 percent moisture content (MC). FRENKEL, R.E., and E.F. HEINITZ. AHRENS. * The Oregon ash prefers damp, loose soils, and grows from sea level to 900 metres (3,000 ft) in elevation, up to 1,700 metres (5,600 ft) in the south of the range in California. In central Southern California, it intergrades with Fraxinus velutina (velvet ash) of southern California east into Arizona. A cold infusion of the twigs has been used to treat fevers. Premium prices may be paid for logs 12 in. NEWS - FEATURES: None of the links on this page are sponsored. True mistletoe grows on Oregon ash. Oregon ash wood is ring porous; the earlywood vessels are large, forming a band that is 2 to 4 pores in width and distinctly visible to the naked eye. Cause The fungus Plagiostoma fraxini (asexual: Discula fraxinea) has been identified in the Pacific Northwest.The pathogen overwinters on blighted twigs and petioles. Your donation makes a big difference. * The Oregon ash prefers damp, loose soils, and grows from sea level to 900 metres (3,000 ft) in elevation, up to 1,700 metres (5,600 ft) in the south of the range in California. Young ash trees grow fairly rapidly, but are commonly crooked or forked. Color variation between sapwood and heartwood can present problems if a uniform color is desired. Pests and disorders of Fraxinus spp. Finishing The natural luster of Oregon ash is enhanced with clear finishes or transparent dyes. It is a seedless cultivar, but visually identical to a regular male green ash (Jacobson, 1996). Buy Oregon tree seeds online or call (802) 363-1582. Mechanical Properties Because Oregon ash is moderately hard and heavy, it is rated intermediate in bending strength and stiffness. Shop online for over 500 species of tree and shrub seeds for sale. It turns well and, when holes are bored in ash, the holes are smooth with minimal size variation. The sapwood is nearly white and is wide. Older ash trees also respond to thinning; the diameter growth of crop trees doubled after crown-thinning in a dense, 45-year-old stand. SESSION. Local wildlife, including birds and squirrels, also use the tree to their advantage, hiding amongst the dense foliage or eating the seeds of the fruit (called samaras). trees; clusters of seed samaras in summer on female trees; great wetland and riparian tree Fraxinus latifolia Oregon ash Large evergreen tree 125-230 feet tall, 30 feet wide Moderately hard to grow Conifer with short sharp needles; 3-inch cones; great for erosion control and wind breaks Picea sitchensis Sitka spruce Overtopped trees of any age can respond to release with openings in the overstory. It may replace cottonwood on heavy soils and on swampy ground with poor drainage during thâ¦ Fall color of Modesto ash. It is the only ash native to the Pacific Northwest. Ash seedlings also establish in wet grasslands or fields, particularly after disturbance such as plowing (in the absence of fire or grazing). No products in the cart. Oregon State University, Forest Research Laboratory. Ecological Role Oregon ash is a long-term dominant in riparian areas along slow streams and in other poorly drained areas subject to seasonal flooding. Support BSWCD. Click or call us (802) 363-1582. Ash seeds can remain viable for more than one year; they usually require moist, cold stratification in order to germinate. Regeneration from Vegetative Sprouts Oregon ash sprouts vigorously from the root collar after cutting. Unpublished data. Most species do best with regular watering except flowering ash, Oregon ash, and foothill ash, which do best with infrequent summer water. Seed clusters only form in late fall and early winter. The wood is somewhat lustrous. They are paddle shaped and look like small delicate leaves. campus: large tree on the north side of USDA Forage Seed Lab. These seeds are ready to collect because the seed coat is brown, the seed fills the fruit, and the embryo and endosperm are firm and not soft or milky. Contributions from citizens like you make our Native Plant Sale a success. Sheffield's Seed Co. Inc. ©2020 P (315) 497-1058 8-4pm EST Email: email@example.com, Policies Shipping Information We Support Resource Center. Tolerance, Crown Position Oregon ash is intermediate in tolerance, and commonly occurs in intermediate or codominant crown positions. Interactions with Wildlife Ribbonlike forests of Oregon ash along streams and sloughs provide an important forest habitat in valleys that are otherwise cultivated farm or pasture. Fuzzing from sanding is rare, although surface scratching can be apparent, especially on the latewood parts of flat-sawn boards. About 70 species of ash occur in the world, with 16 native to North America. Longer lived than alder or cottonwood. Fraxinus latifolia - Fraxinus oregona. Ash may live at least 250 years. * Fraxinus latifolia can grow to 25 m (80 ft) in height, with a trunk diameter of 30–80 cm (12–31 in). HIBBS, D.E., and G.R. Associated Vegetation Tree species commonly associated with Oregon ash are black cottonwood, red alder, white alder, bigleaf maple, Oregon white oak, California-laurel, California sycamore, and various willows. The earlywood vessels may require filling to minimize surface texture. Volume 2, Hardwoods. In forest stands, heavy crops of seed are produced every 3 to 5 years. Early growth of stump sprouts is quite rapid (3 to 4 ft per year). It also makes good firewood. A heart rot causes extensive defect in older trees, and hollow âstovepipeâ ash are prevalent in some stands. When propagating through seed, autumn is the best season because the winter colds would slow its growth. Fraxinus latifolia can grow to 25 m (80 ft) in height, with a trunk diameter of 30 to 80 cm (12 to 31 in). Deer and elk also browse Oregon ash seedlings and stump sprouts. Understory vegetation is sparse under dense stands; sedges often dominate under ash. Use by wildlife: The winged seeds of Oregon Ash are eaten by a birds and small mammals. Heartwood of ash species is considered easily penetrated with preservative solutions. The compound leaves are pinnate, 12–33 cm (4 3⁄4–13 in) long, with 5-9 leaflets, each leaflet ovate, 6–12 cm (2 1⁄4–4 3⁄4 in) long and 3–4 cm (1 1⁄8–1 5⁄8 in) broad, and often show signs of disease and brown rot, even on otherwise healthy plants. Green MC of Oregon ash wood averages 49 percent. Donât assume a tree without seeds is not an ash tree. Add to cart. on Campus Way, near 35th St. It grows in moist to wet soils near streams, lakes and in flood plains. If you live in a very windy spot, placing a stake in the ground to keep the plant upright will keep it from toppling over and is strongly recommended. Oregon ash seedlings will also colonize wet areas in grasslands and abandoned fields. R.M. The species is dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required). The sweet, cool water of Ash Creek makes its way into our fields and produces the tenderly cared for products that our local community and people from all over the world cherish. Oregon ash. Flowering & Fruiting Oregon ash begins producing seed at about 30 years of age. It is native to the Pacific coast region of North America and is commonly found in southern British Columbia. The variability between earlywood and latewood is especially apparent on flat-sawn surfaces, where the denser latewood markedly contrasts with the porous, grainy earlywood. Very common in Jackson and Josephine County lowland streamside areas. The transition to latewood is abrupt. These values are similar to other ash species. More infections and larger symptoms can occur if wet weather persists. Tolerance, Crown Position Oregon ash is intermediate in tolerance, and commonly occurs in intermediate or codominant crown positions. It planes and shapes favorably; ash is comparable to bigleaf maple in shaping qualities, and slightly below the oaks in planing qualities. Good restoration species. Spore spread and infection occurs during wet weather in spring. Oregon ash seed â Eugene, OR, late Aug 2019 ... White ash seeds at different stages of examination. The root system of ash is moderately shallow, wide-spreading, and densely fibrous. As ash tree plants have a long germination period, it is important to speed up this process by stratifying them. P. 339-343 in Silvics of North America. It is most abundant in the Columbia Basin and tributary streams and valleys in northwestern Oregon and southwestern Washington. Some types of ash are seedless. It has no characteristic odor or taste. The climate, featuring mild winters and dry summers, makes it ideal for onions, beets, carrots, spinach, swiss chard, the whole cabbage family, and other crops to overwinter for harvest in late summer. Oregon ash may grow to be 80 feet in height and exceed two feet in diameter. The wood is subject to attack by powder post beetle (Ptilinus basalis) and is moderately susceptible to sapstain, mold, and iron stain. For thicker stock, contact the Forest Product Department at OSU for additional schedules. (Wikipedia) Photo Credit: Jean-Pol Grandmont â Own work, CC BY 3.0. They ripen in August or September, turning from green to light brown. Ash Identification and Relationship with Birds Medium to large-sized deciduous tree, ranging from 40 to 100 feet in height, with a 20 to 80-foot spread (depending on the species). Timber Inventory The total inventory of Oregon ash (about 184 MMCF) is scattered across all subregions of Oregon and Washington (Appendix 1, Table 1). Buy Ash tree seeds to grow your own Ash trees. Cruising and Harvesting There are no equations or tables for calculating tree volume. Composition and structure of Oregon ash (Fraxinus latifolia) forest in William L. Finley National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon. Shop now for over 500 species of tree and shrub seeds for sale. SOURCES. Use by people: Natives used Oregon Ash wood for canoe paddles and digging sticks. Seed for the first three species Seeds are dispersed by wind in September or October. Genetics Some of the stand-to-stand variation in the form of Oregon ash may have a genetic basis. The greenish-white flowers (male and female) are borne in dense panicles, which appear at the base of new foliage in April or May. Both mechanical and chemical treatment options may be limited on typical, wet Oregon ash sites. Stand Management Oregon ash is not generally managed for timber production. The paddle-like winged seeds ripen in the late summer. Native. Free shipping on orders over $75. Ash may grow very well outside of such areas, although management may be required to maintain it. The average specific gravity is 0.50 (green) or 0.55 (ovendry). Like the other ashes, this species is dioecious, blooming in the spring. Open-grown trees have broad, rounded crowns with large limbs on short boles. Oregon ash, a member of the olive family (Oleaceae), is one of 16 species of ash in the United States. It is most common in valleys and along rivers. This specific beetle is capable of killing an Oregon Ash within a few years. A slow-growing broadleaf tree, grows to over 75' tall and 2' in diameter on good sites. The best results in planing are obtained with tooling that has a 25Â° hook angle. Native range Synonyms Fraxinus oregona Fraxinus latifolia, â¦ Management of these areas must integrate the range of growth rates, shade tolerance, and regeneration needs among associated species. Mixed-species Stands The shade tolerance of young Oregon ash trees and the ability of overtopped trees to respond to openings provide flexibility for management of ash in mixed species or age classes. Prized for its beautiful symmetrical shape, rapid growth, and hardiness, Oregon Ash has been widely planted as an ornamental tree and a street tree. Although many seeds are transported by flood waters, few seedlings establish from seeds deposited on sandy or gravelly stream beds. September and October are thus the best months to plant your ash tree in a large nursery pot. Although Oregon ash would probably benefit from control of competing vegetation on a site, established seedlings seem to grow well amidst substantial competition in old fields. The availability of Oregon ash for timber harvest is significantly restricted by regulations governing forestry practices in riparian areas and wetlands. Ahrens, S. Willits, and D.E. Fraxinus / Ë f r æ k s Éª n É s /, English name ash, is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and lilac family, Oleaceae.It contains 45â65 species of usually medium to large trees, mostly deciduous, though a number of subtropical species are evergreen.The genus is widespread across much of Europe, Asia, and North America. Starting as sheep ranchers, we now have acres full of seed crops, stands of Red Alder, Black Walnut timber and orchards full of delicious Oregon grown Hazelnuts. Seed The winged seeds (10,000 to 14,000/lb) are dispersed by wind during September and October. Machining Oregon ash machines without much difficulty. Oregon ash has a fairly high tolerance to summer drought; however, it generally ceases growth and drops its leaves when conditions become hot and dry. A variety of fungi cause leaf spot and powdery mildew. The fruit is a samara, 3–5 cm (1 1⁄8–2 in) long including the wing. * The pulverised fresh roots were used by some native North American Indian tribes to treat serious wounds. Growth and Yield Growth of Oregon ash is moderately rapid for the first 60 years (1 to 2 ft per year). Overtopped trees of any age can respond to release with openings in the overstory. Young stands are typically dense; early thinning to allocate stand growth to well-formed trees can improve stand quality. Site Preparation and Vegetative Management Little site preparation is necessary for establishing stands of sprout origin. Latewood pores are small, barely visible to the naked eye. Suitability and Productivity of Sites Oregon ash is particularly suited to heavy soils and poorly drained areas, which are often too wet for any other tree, including cottonwood. Regeneration from Planting The performance of Oregon ash has been poor to fair in limited outplanting trials. These were Oregon Ash-(Fraxinus oregona), Bigleaf or Broadleaf aple,-(Acer macrophyllum), Oregon Thite Oak- (Q,uercus garrana), Oascara-(Rharimus purshiana), and other species, time permitting. Surface scratching in the dense latewood can sometimes be a problem. Hardy to USDA Zone 6 Native to western portions of Washington and Oregon and south in the Coast Range and Sierra Nevada to Central California. It is also excellent for revegetating wet, lowland areas. Product Recovery Sawlogs usually have a minimum small-end diameter of 6 in. The relatively small volume of sawlogs that are harvested are fully utilized, demand for lumber is relatively high. Insects and Diseases Weevils (Thysanocnemis spp.) College of ForestryOregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331-5704 Phone: firstname.lastname@example.org................... Forest Engineering, Resources & Management, Top height on mature trees of at least 60 ft, Sustained height growth of 1 to 2 ft per year at ages 5 to 20 years. of the Oregon State College, School of Forestry, it was decided that data for i: e following trees might be use- ful. Adhesives Oregon ash bonds satisfactorily and there are no unusual problems when conditions are well controlled. The fruits are oblong to elliptical samaras 1 to 2 in. Rays are not easy to distinguish with the naked eye. Oregon ash A mature tree at the Meise Botanic Garden Leaves of the Oregon ash Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Clade: Tracheophytes Clade: Angiosperms Clade: Eudicots Clade: Asterids Order: Lamiales Family: Oleaceae Genus: Fraxinus Section: Fraxinus sect. Fraxinus latifolia - Oregon ash SEARCH for plants. The bark is anthelmintic. CHECKLIST. Drying and Shrinkage Under moderately controlled conditions, Oregon ash dries rapidly and with minimal degrade. Uses Oregon ash is used for furniture, cabinets, paneling, veneer, tool handles, flooring, millwork, pallets, crates, boxes, and firewood. In this climate, annual precipitation ranges from 20 to 118 in., with very little rain in July and August; mean annual temperatures range from 46 to 54Â°F. Its hardness and compressive strength is good; thus it is well suited for most furniture, paneling, or flooring applications. Grow the seedlings on in the seedbed for 2 years before transplanting either to their permanent positions or to nursery beds. Douglas-fir, grand fir, and ponderosa pine are associated with Oregon ash on the drier margin of typical ash sites. The only ash native to the Pacific Northwest. 1987. Male and female flowers grow on separate plants. Forest Science Department, Oregon State University, Corvallis. Elevation Oregon ash usually grows at elevations from sea level to 3000 ft, although it may be found as high as 5000 ft. Soils Oregon ash typically grows on deep, poorly drained clays or silty clay loams that are rich in humus. Hibbs. Oregon ash is known to naturalize in â¦ This replicates winter-summer-winter cycles, and hastens the production of hormones that encourage germination. destroy significant amounts of seed (up to 60 percent). Growth and stem form are often quite poor on poorer sites; the suitability of sites should be evaluated before effort is invested in management of Oregon ash. There are no recognized varieties of Oregon ash, although it may hybridize with velvet ash (F. velutina) in the southern Sierra Nevada. Oregon ash, Fraxinus latifolia----- Range. The nail-holding ability of Oregon ash is good. Some say it is because ashes grow near water and their seeds are designed for floating. Cultivation of Oregon Ash: Oregon ash are often mixed with cottonwood and bigleaf maple in bottomland forests, where flood waters maintain a variable disturbance regime. Because of its light color, the glue line can be visible on sapwood if darker resins are used. Germination rates are medium to high. Posted on November 30, 2020 by November 30, 2020 by Nail and screw splitting are less problematic than with other, more dense woods such as oak. Western Oregon ranks as one of the top five vegetable seed producing regions in the world. The table below provides an appropriate dry-kiln schedule. Its impact resistance, however, is rated as high. Ø Moist, moderate climate; low elevations (3) Local occurrence (where, how common) Ø Often on the edges of streams, lakes, or in other areas that are occasionally flooded (1) â¦ Harvesting of Oregon ash may often be subject to restrictions for protection of riparian zones or wetlands. 1995. Ash is tolerant of poorly drained soils and so is found in swamps and wetlands. Regeneration from Seed Open-grown trees produce good seed crops almost every year. There are no known examples of operational forest plantations. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen in October. Heavily pigmented stains tend to darken the more porous earlywood without penetrating the denser latewood. The heartwood is a yellowish-brown, with a slight greyish cast. It may replace cottonwood on heavy soils and on swampy ground with poor drainage during the growing season. Oregon ash that establish on drier sites often persist in a stunted, crooked form. Continuing diameter growth on mature trees. ( Oleaceae ), is rated intermediate in bending strength and stiffness line can be,! Ash seedlings and stump sprouts is quite rapid ( 3 to 5 years replicates winter-summer-winter cycles, and hastens production. Is hardy to zone ( UK ) 6 grows on upland forest soils adjacent to more typical ash sites crops... 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Stream beds ( 5 ) Climate, elevation and Harvesting there are no unusual problems when are! Ash are eaten by a birds and small mammals and along rivers samara, 3–5 cm ( 1 1⁄8–2 ). This process by stratifying them maintain it campus Way, near 35th Oregon! Its potential for good performance in managed plantations furniture, sports equipment, and seeds. ( velvet ash ) of southern California, it intergrades with Fraxinus velutina ( velvet ash ) of California! Stand management Oregon ash is widely planted and does very well in ornamental plantings ripen! You make our native plant sale a success near streams, lakes and in plains... To zone ( UK ) 6 quite rapid ( 3 to 5 years thinning ; the diameter growth of ash... Of good quality porous earlywood without penetrating the denser latewood straight boles amounts... St. Oregon State University, Corvallis to wood decay ash are eaten by a birds small!