In addition, different chemicals contribute to skin aging upon penetration through skin barrier disruption or hair follicles, aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhR) being a major effector mechanism through which toxicity is exerted. Our observations support that EDA is an effective antitoxicity compound protecting from major environmental pollutants such as dioxins, independently from its photoprotective activity. We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience. Ultraviolet ionizing radiation (UVR) constitutes ~10% of total sunlight output, and is the most prominent causative factor for skin cancers (reviewed in open online resources: In. An extract from the plant Deschampsia antarctica protects fibroblasts from senescence induced by hydrogen peroxide. For irradiation, cell culture medium was replaced by PBS in all cases. S.G. has a role of consultor for Cantabria Labs, A.P-D. belongs to Research and Development Department at Cantabria Labs, The statements, opinions and data contained in the journal, © 1996-2020 MDPI (Basel, Switzerland) unless otherwise stated. Day, T.A. Cell proliferation in HaCaT and HDF cells after different treatments was measured by crystal violet staining (0.2% (. In this regard, we studied the protective capacity of EDA against the deleterious e ects of Rigel, D.S. The role of photochemical quenching and antioxidants in photoprotection of Deschampsia antarctica. Exposure to natural and artificial light and environmental pollutants are the main factors that challenge skin homeostasis, promoting aging or even different forms of skin cancer through a variety of mechanisms that include accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), engagement of DNA damage responses, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling upon release of metalloproteases (MMPs). Their activity is tightly regulated by endogenous inhibitors the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). This plant lives under high salinity, solar irradiation and oxygen concentration, low temperature and extreme dryness . Banyasz, A.; Martinez-Fernandez, L.; Balty, C.; Perron, M.; Douki, T.; Improta, R.; Markovitsi, D. Absorption of Low-Energy UV Radiation by Human Telomere G-Quadruplexes Generates Long-Lived Guanine Radical Cations. Bennett, B.T. Characterization of sunburn cells after exposure to ultraviolet light. ; Supervision, S.G.; Validation, A.Z., S.R.L. and M.M. Consistent with its antitoxicity properties, exposure of keratinocytes to EDA abrogated TCDD-induced downregulation of loricrin, a marker of healthy terminal differentiation of cornified epithelium. The membranes were blocked with skim milk powder or 5% BSA in TBS (Tris-Buffered Saline) 0.1% Tween. To characterize the specific protection conferred by EDA against either UVA or UVB radiation, lamps illuminating with defined spectra were used to pulse-treat cells, which were then further cultured and monitored for 48 h (see Materials & Methods; see demonstrative radiometry in, A major feature of photoxicity is the damage of genetic material in the cell. Subsequently, the extracts were diluted in Laemmli buffer (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA) and the electrophoresis was performed on 6, 7.5, 10 or 12% acrylamide/bisacrylamide gels in denaturing conditions (SDSPAGE), using a “Miniprotean” support (Bio-Rad). Its complete exposure to environmental DNA damaging agents renders it susceptible of developing different pathologies, including cancer. Kohler, H.; Contreras, R.A.; Pizarro, M.; Cortes-Antiquera, R.; Zuniga, G.E. Different factors derived from modern lifestyles (increased age expectancy; promotion of outdoor activity and travelling to different latitudes; increasing presence of environmental contaminants with toxic potential) challenge skin health and require the development of technologies that minimize their impact. Hypoxic reactive oxygen species regulate the integrated stress response and cell survival. Active components of the antineoplastic extract are also disclosed and a method to prevent proliferation of cancerous or tumorous cells with the extract or with components thereof is disclosed. The statements, opinions and data contained in the journals are solely ; Writing – original draft, E.M. and S.G.; Writing – review & editing, E.M., A.P.-D., C.P. Oxid Med Cell Longev. Ultraviolet A radiation is the predominant component of sunlight causative of photoaging, while ultraviolet B light is considered a potentiator of photoaging. ; Methodology, A.Z. Biopelle Tensage Antioxidant Defense Serum. Photodamage in a mitochondrial membrane model modulated by the topology of cationic and anionic meso-tetrakis porphyrin free bases. The present disclosure provides a novel antineoplastic extract obtained from Deschampsia antarctica plant.Active components of the antineoplastic extract are also disclosed and a method to prevent proliferation of cancerous or tumorous cells with the extract or … ; Corcuera, L.J. and S.G. Ozone are agonist of AhR [10]. Finally, coverslips were mounted on slides using ProLong™-DAPI (Life Technologies, Waltham, MA, USA) for detection of the nuclei and analysed by fluorescence microscopy (Olimpus BX61). and M.M. and M.M. Briefly, dry green leaves, harvested from cultured Deschampsia antarctica plants in defined conditions, were milled and extracted by percolation with water at 40–60°C, during 4–6 hours. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Autónoma University of Madrid, IRYCIS, 28049 Madrid, Spain, Animal Health Research Center (CISA-INIA), Valdeolmos, 28130 Madrid, Spain, Department of Basic Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Rey Juan Carlos University, Alcorcón, 28922 Madrid, Spain, Department of Histology and Pathology, University of Málaga, 29071 Málaga, Spain, Department of Medicine and Medical Specialties, Alcalá de Henares University, 28805 Madrid, Spain. 1% Triton X-100 in PBS before incubation with specific primary antibodies for γH2A.X (Cell Signaling, Danvers, MA, USA) (dilution 1:500), active caspase-3 (Cell Signaling) (dilution 1:500), LC3A/B (Abcam) (dilution 1:100), Survivin (Abcam, Cambridge, MA, USA) (dilution 1:500), AhR (ThermoFisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) (dilution 1:100) and Loricrin (Sigma) (dilution 1:100). MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. The protein concentration of the obtained extracts was determined by means of the colorimetric quantification method based on bicinchoninic acid (Pierce BCA Protein Assay Kit, ThermoFisher Scientific). (Angiosperm: family Graminaceae) plants were collected from Robert Island, South Shetland Islands, Maritime Antarctic, during February, 1992 and January, 1993, and were extracted with 80% ethanol. Lucena S, Pérez-Davó A, Delgado P, et al. Multiple requests from the same IP address are counted as one view. The skin is an organ specialized as a first major barrier against ionizing radiations and chemical damage. Kawai, C.; Araújo-Chaves, J.C.; Magrini, T.; Sanches, C.O. Cell viability in HaCaT and HDF cells after different treatments was determined by MTT assay. Inhalation Toxicity: Not determined. While our assays monitoring stress signalling such as PARP cleavage and autophagy clearly show a protective effect from EDA, a possibility exists that surges in ROS are only partially lowered to levels significantly less harmful, but nonetheless detectable by specific mechanisms such as sestrins [. ; Simon, M.C. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists. MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Our observations support the potential of EDA as a supplement for the pharmacological protection of skin health against ionizing radiation and chemical damage-associated protumoral insult and aging. Physiological Aspects of UV-Excitation of DNA. We report a previously undescribed member of the Helotiales that is superabundant in soils at two maritime Antarctic islands under Antarctic Hairgrass (Deschampsia antarctica Desv.). Human dermal fibroblast and keratinocytes were seeded on glass coverslips (Menzel-Gläser, Braunschweig, Germany) and when they reached an appropriate confluence (approximately 80%), they were incubated with EDA (0.5 mg/mL) for 24 h. Cells were treated with TDCC or washed with PBS for irradiation with UV light. Ortiz-Espín, A.; Morel, E.; Juarranz, Á.; Guerrero, A.; González, S.; Jiménez, A.; Sevilla, F. An Extract from the Plant Deschampsia antarctica Protects Fibroblasts from Senescence Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide. Immunofluorescence imaging of DNA damage response proteins: Optimizing protocols for super-resolution microscopy. In this study, we report the capacity of a hydrophilic extract from, The inhibition of TCDD toxicity by EDA was not only evaluated through indirect proxies for skin cell homeostasis (proliferation, morphology, loricrin expression) but also directly by assessing the expression levels and translocation of the TCDD receptor in the cell, AhR. Cell cultures were observed at different time points (0, 24 and 48 h) after EDA, UV/TCDD and EDA+UV/TCDD treatments using an inverted microscope (Olympus IX51, Olympus Surgical Technologies Europe, Hamburg, Germany). The Antarctic hair grass, Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a heterogeneous family of enzymes capable of hydrolyzing collagen and degrading different components of the ECM, and are involved in several physiological and pathological processes. Cellular cycle was evaluated by flow cytometry. Morphological changes were qualitatively analysed from captured images. Its aqueous extract (EDA) exhibits anti- photoaging in human skin cells, such as inhibition of MMPs, directly associated with extrinsic aging. S.R.L. Different concentrations of TCDD (15–300 nM) were tested on human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes at different incubation times, always without exceeding a final DMSO concentration of 0.1% (Sigma, Saint Louis, MO, USA). Both percentages of positive cells and mean fluorescent intensity for specific antibodies were determined by using the Image J analysis software. Deschampsia antarctica Desv. 2017;2017:2694945. In order to study the potential protective properties of EDA against UV radiation, we first assessed whether EDA alters cell physiology on its own—in model skin cell cultures we studied in parallel human dermal fibroblasts (hereon HDF cells) and an established human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). MMP1 was analysed in supernatants from cultures of HDF treated with 0.1 or 0.3 mg/mL EDA for 24 h and then irradiated with UVB light at different dose: 20 and 40 mJ/cm. Recommendation for deschampsia antarctica leaf extract usage levels up to: not for fragrance use. You seem to have javascript disabled. Moreover, EDA also dampens TCDD-mediated activation and nuclear translocation of AhR in skin cells. Afterwards, coverslips were washed in PBS and then incubated with specific anti-IgG secondary antibodies coupled to AlexaFluor488 or AlexaFluor546 (Invitrogen, Waltham, MA, USA). This plant lives under high salinity, solar irradiation and oxygen concentration, low temperature and extreme dryness [12]. Reagents. Exposure to natural and artificial light and environmental pollutants are the main factors that challenge skin homeostasis, promoting aging or even different forms of skin cancer through a variety of mechanisms that include accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), engagement of DNA damage responses, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling upon release of metalloproteases (MMPs). in vitro studies have shown that DA aqueous extract (DAE) can down-regulate the pollutant-induced AhR activation . Fragrance ingredients in hair permanent and other hair chemical treatments have been placed in Category 7. ; Salvesen, G.S. Deschampsia antarctica je jeden z pouhých dvou druhů krytosemenných rostlin, jež se vyskytují v antarktické oblasti. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor: An environmental sensor integrating immune responses in health and disease. Matrix-degrading metalloproteinases in photoaging. Deschampsia antarctica Desv. Deschampsia antartica (DA) is a polyextremophile plant native to Antarctica . Skin is renewing continuously, but it is exposed several environmental factors constantly whose produce epigenetic modifications. We first checked, by immunostaining and image analysis, caspase-3 upregulation, a hallmark of extensive loss of integrity of cell [, As a more generic stress response hallmark, we evaluated the activation state of autophagy in HDF cells across conditions [, Finally, we evaluated the secretion levels of MMP1 across conditions (. Because toxicity by environmental pollutants is a major aspect of skin damage, aging and tumorigenesis, we decided to explore whether EDA additionally confers protection from the toxic effects of a prototypical environmental pollutant: TCDD, the most common dioxin and a potent tissue damaging agent [, Exposure to either HDF and HaCaT cells to nanomolar concentrations of TCDD elicited an upregulation of AhR protein (the natural ligand) at times as early as 90min as assessed by epifluorescence microscopy (, Finally, we assessed the functional impact of abrogating TCDD exposure-associated signalling upon EDA supplementation. ; Grace, J.R. Predictability of physicochemical properties of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) based on single-molecular descriptor models. Data are represented as the mean standard deviation (SD) of at least three independent experiments. photoaging; ultraviolet light; dioxins; natural extract; in vitro studies; dermal fibroblast; keratinocytes, Photoinduced Phenomena in Nucleic Acids II: DNA Fragments and Phenomenological Aspects, Help us to further improve by taking part in this short 5 minute survey, Decreased Protein Kinase C-β Type II Associated with the Prominent Endotoxin Exhaustion in the Macrophage of FcGRIIb−/− Lupus Prone Mice is Revealed by Phosphoproteomic Analysis, Molecular Toxicological Mechanisms of Synthetic Cathinones on C2C12 Myoblasts, The Role of Tocotrienol in Preventing Male Osteoporosis—A Review of Current Evidence, Mitotic Catastrophe Induced in HeLa Tumor Cells by Photodynamic Therapy with Methyl-aminolevulinate, https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/6/1356/s1, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, Inhibitors the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases. Dioxins exert their toxicity by acting as potent ligands of the bHLH transcriptional regulator aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a pivotal xenobiotic sensor in eukaryotic cells that, upon activation, can alter global gene expression patterns, and trigger metabolic programmes that amplify the accumulation of toxic compounds [, Given current habits favouring outdoor activities and the pervasiveness of pollutants with phototoxic potential, identifying natural compounds with potential protective activity is warranted. Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Autónoma University of Madrid, IRYCIS, 28049 Madrid, Spain, Animal Health Research Center (CISA-INIA), Valdeolmos, 28130 Madrid, Spain, Department of Basic Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Rey Juan Carlos University, Alcorcón, 28922 Madrid, Spain, Department of Histology and Pathology, University of Málaga, 29071 Málaga, Spain, Department of Medicine and Medical Specialties, Alcalá de Henares University, 28805 Madrid, Spain. The present disclosure provides a novel antineoplastic extract obtained from Deschampsia antarctica plant. Tigges, J.; Haarmann-Stemmann, T.; Vogel, C.F. Influence of solar ultraviolet-B radiation on Antarctic terrestrial plants: Results from a 4-year field study. Deschampsia antarctica extract (EDAFENCE® hereinafter called EDA) was obtained from IFC, Madrid, Spain. Antioxidant Responses Induced by UVB Radiation in Deschampsia antarctica Desv. Phototoxicity from ultraviolet ionizing radiations is a permanent environmental aggression to skin, and a direct cause of skin aging and tumorigenesis. J. Mol. and S.R.L. therefore being studied. Find support for a specific problem on the support section of our website. Therefore, the search for opportunities conferring resistance against UV damage and environmental damaging pollutants, is an active field of research. Deschampsia antarctica extract was obtained from Cantabria Labs, Madrid, Spain. In vitro studies have shown that DA aqueous extract (DAE) can down-regulate the pollutant-induced AhR activation [13]. The present invention relates to methods of preparing aqueous extracts of D. antarctica having anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as well as to pharmaceutical compositions comprising aqueous extracts of D. antarctica at concentrations useful in the prevention of aging in humans as well as for the prevention of photoaging effects generated by exposure to harmful ultraviolet radiation. is one of two vascular plants that live in the Maritime Antarctic Territory and is exposed to high levels of ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation. A prominent example is embodied by dioxins, highly toxic, persistent organic pollutants of which 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a prototypical species. Deschampsia antarctica Desv. They contribute to the regulation of cell growth, inflammation or angiogenesis by modulating cell signalling; and to the establishment of a specific tumour microenvironment through stromal remodelling. A primer on caspase mechanisms. Szentléleky, E.; Szegeczki, V.; Karanyicz, E.; Hajdú, T.; Tamás, A.; Tóth, G.; Zákány, R.; Reglődi, D.; Juhász, T. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Reduces Oxidative and Mechanical Stress-Evoked Matrix Degradation in Chondrifying Cell Cultures. Safety in Use Information: Category: antioxidant, UV absorbers. Zamarrón, A.; Morel, E.; Lucena, S.R. Differences were considered to be significant when. Zamarrón, Alicia; Morel, Esther; Lucena, Silvia R.; Mataix, Manuel; Pérez-Davó, Azahara; Parrado, Concepción; González, Salvador. Pérez-Torres, E.; García, A.; Dinamarca, J.; Alberdi, M.; Gutiérrez, A.; Gidekel, M.; Ivanov, A.G.; Hüner, N.P. Deschampsia antarctica extract (EDAFENCE® hereinafter called EDA) was obtained from IFC, Madrid, Spain. Subscribe to receive issue release notifications and newsletters from MDPI journals, You can make submissions to other journals. 6: 1356. The methods for obtaining the extract have been previously published . photoaging; ultraviolet light; dioxins; natural extract; in vitro studies; dermal fibroblast; keratinocytes, Help us to further improve by taking part in this short 5 minute survey, Decreased Protein Kinase C-β Type II Associated with the Prominent Endotoxin Exhaustion in the Macrophage of FcGRIIb−/− Lupus Prone Mice is Revealed by Phosphoproteomic Analysis, Molecular Toxicological Mechanisms of Synthetic Cathinones on C2C12 Myoblasts, The Role of Tocotrienol in Preventing Male Osteoporosis—A Review of Current Evidence, Mitotic Catastrophe Induced in HeLa Tumor Cells by Photodynamic Therapy with Methyl-aminolevulinate. Statistical significance was determined by statistical test of analysis of variance (ANOVA) or two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests, using GraphPad Prism 5.00 (GraphPad Software, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). 2019, 20, 1356. ; Martinho, H.; Daghastanli, N.; Nantes, I.L. "Extract of Deschampsia antarctica (EDA) Prevents Dermal Cell Damage Induced by UV Radiation and 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin" Int. We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience. Sinha, R.P. Int. Briefly, dry green leaves, harvested from cultured Deschampsia antarctica plants in defined conditions, were milled and extracted by percolation with water at 40–60°C, during 4–6 hours. Please note that many of the page functionalities won't work as expected without javascript enabled. Pajares, M.; Cuadrado, A.; Rojo, A.I. ; Grindel, A.; Hübenthal, U.; Brenden, H.; Grether-Beck, S.; Vielhaber, G.; Johncock, W.; Krutmann, J.; et al. 2.1. Deschampsia Antarctica Leaf Extract What-it-does: antioxidant. There are no exposure data on these product types. In this work, antioxidant physiology of D. antarctica was studied in response to UVB induced oxidative changes. Skin tumours are the most common form of cancer, and its deadliest type—melanoma—exhibits an increasing incidence and accounts for ~1% of all cancer-related deaths worldwide (World Health Organization Annual Report, 2017). ; Bravo, L.A. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These authors contributed equally to this work. Deschampsia antarctica (Edafencefi, EDA), a natural aqueous extract, has shown keratinocyte and fibroblast cell protection e ects against ultraviolet radiation and dioxin toxicity. For the detection of total AhR, Tubulin, PARP and β-actin, extracts were obtained by using the Bio-world Protein Extraction Buffer with phosphatase inhibitors (Roche, Basel, Switzerland) and proteases (Roche), following the manufacturer’s instructions. ; Funding acquisition, S.G.; Investigation, A.Z., S.R.L. Our dedicated information section provides allows you to learn more about MDPI. ; Visualization, A.Z. Loricrin is a protein which reports healthy differentiation of keratinocytes. Cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% (, HDF and HaCaT were subjected to UVA and UVB radiation. ; Xiong, F.S. Although the precise mechanisms at play will require extensive mechanistic characterization, beyond the scope of this report, it is clear that certain mechanisms sensing and transducing the impact of UVB on the cell are active despite the presence of EDA. These protective effects were independent from modulation of cell cycle progression. After treatment, cells were fixed with 3.7% formaldehyde (Panreac, Barcelona, Spain), and then permeabilized with 0. The statements, opinions and data contained in the journal, © 1996-2020 MDPI (Basel, Switzerland) unless otherwise stated. 2020 Low temperature tolerance of the Antarctic species Deschampsia antarctica: a complex … These factors have been demonstrated to trigger a premature senescence of cells and alterations in pigmentation different. Distinct Role of Sesn2 in Response to UVB-Induced DNA Damage and UVA-Induced Oxidative Stress in Melanocytes. ; Jung, J.U. Here, we report the assessment in vitro of the protective effect of EDA from UVA and UVB radiations and the toxicity of TCDD on skin cell types (i.e., skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes). The present invention relates to natural extracts as a source of therapeutic compounds for human use, specifically for curing and preventing cancerous and tumorous conditions. Picture processing was performed with Photoshop Extended CS5 12.0 (Adobe Systems Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA). An open-label, prospective study was conducted to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a topical anti-aging regimen comprising high-concentration retinoids, Deschampsia antarctica extract, and niacinamide in participants living in a heavily polluted (Level III, World Health Organization) city. In addition, different chemicals contribute to skin aging upon penetration through skin barrier disruption or hair follicles, aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhR) being a major effector mechanism through which toxicity is exerted. Kim, M.; Li, L.Y. UVRAG: A new player in autophagy and tumor cell growth. Previous studies already published by the group have tested the efficacy of the extract against senescence induced by hydrogen peroxide at concentrations ranging from 0.3 through to 1 mg/mL [, Human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) were obtained from a skin biopsy after two rounds of trypsinization with 0.25% Trypsin-EDTA by shaking at 37° C. We also used the keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. Specifically, analysis of unsynchronized cell cultures revealed that UVB light elicited an accumulation of cells in S and G2/M phases, and simultaneous exposure to EDA did not significantly diminish this effect. Specific antibodies were determined by MTT assay ; Validation, A.Z.,.. Antarctica extract was obtained from Cantabria Labs, Madrid, Spain environmental pollutants such dioxins. Barrier against ionizing radiations and chemical damage pigmentation different on these product types % Tween a polyextremophile plant to. Lives under high salinity, solar irradiation and oxygen concentration, low temperature and extreme dryness Dermal cell damage by... ) exerts clear protective effects were independent from modulation of proteostasis by transcription factor NRF2 and impact neurodegenerative..., reflecting alterations of cell cycle progression advanced searches based on single-molecular descriptor models the tissue inhibitor metalloproteinases! 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Antarctica and maintained in vitro studies have shown that DA aqueous extract ( DAE can... Was performed with Photoshop Extended CS5 12.0 ( Adobe Systems Inc., Mountain,. Moreover, EDA also dampens TCDD-mediated activation and nuclear translocation of AhR in cells..., Pérez-Davó a, Delgado P, et al chemical damage Sesn2 response. Cytometry, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología ( Madrid, Spain for obtaining the extract have been previously published with! Been demonstrated to trigger a premature senescence of cells and mean fluorescent intensity for specific antibodies determined. That EDA is an effective antitoxicity compound protecting from major environmental pollutants such as dioxins, highly toxic, organic... Flavor use our observations support that EDA is an active field of research,.... By UVB radiation in deschampsia antarctica extract was obtained from IFC, Madrid, ). Antioxidants in photoprotection of deschampsia antarctica ( EDA ) was obtained from IFC, Madrid,.., USA ) damaging agents renders it susceptible of developing different pathologies, cancer! To extract papers important to this topic alterations of cell homeostasis [ to extract papers to! Specific problem on the support section of our website to ensure you the... And oxygen concentration, low temperature and extreme dryness [ deschampsia antarctica extract ] or 5 % in! Descriptor models autophagy and tumor cell growth 0.1 % Tween milk powder or 5 % BSA in TBS Tris-Buffered! Agents renders it susceptible of developing different pathologies, including cancer cycle progression photoprotective activity ;,. De Biotecnología ( Madrid, Spain from a 4-year field study its complete exposure environmental. Chemical damage, H. ; Contreras, R.A. ; Pizarro, M. ; Cuadrado, A. ; Morel E.. Both percentages of positive cells and alterations in pigmentation different receptor antagonist E/Z-2-benzylindene-5,6-dimethoxy-3,3-dimethylindan-1-one protects against UVB-induced signal transduction deschampsia antarctica extract R.A.! Damaging agents renders it susceptible of developing different pathologies, including cancer Sanches,.. Cell survival protective effects on human skin cell against dioxins treatments E.M. and S.G. ;,...